Topic: The purpose of this study will be to examine the effects of a low-carbohy

Topic: The purpose of this study will be to examine the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on endurance athletes performance
The study should be feasible, but need not be elaborate; a simple well-designed study incorporating elements of what you have learned in the course regarding research methods should be your goal. The resources and population must be available, and the research design, methods and plan should be within your capabilities as a student.
The research question(s) should be significant not only to the student, but also to the profession and/or population involved. The problem statement, background, and significance must be articulated demonstrating a good understanding of the literature reviewed and documenting the problem/issue that is the focus of the research study.
The proposal needs to be written using correct grammar and writing skills. Your writing should be scientific, concise, and straight-forward throughout your paper; avoid wordiness, rambling, run-on sentences, and sentence fragments. The proposal must be free of jargon, slang, colloquialisms, and personal pronouns (e.g., do not say, “I will recruit participants from…”). It must be formatted according to APA 7th ed. guidelines (i.e., double-spaced throughout, following title page, in-text citations, references, margins, headings, and punctuation guidelines).
Scope of the Research Proposal
The proposal should be 8 – 12 pages (2,000 – 3,000 words) content document that will include: the revisions from Assignment # 4A and Assignment # 4B and a minimum of 12 references, the majority of which should be from within the past 8 years. The title page, abstract, conceptual diagrams (as appropriate), references and appendices are in addition to the 12-page maximum. The final proposal should be submitted on Canvas by the due date/time. Turnitin.com will be utilized for this assignment.
Specific guidelines for the proposal including the organization of the proposal contents are provided on the following pages (these are mostly a repeat of what has been defined in previous sections explaining each part of this assignment, but may ask for additional information or detail in some sections).
I. Research Problem and Purpose of the Study
In this section, you will provide a context for the research question that follows. Discuss the problem or area of inquiry that your study will assess/address; discuss the significance of the proposed study (why is it important to do?); cite references. This section uses the literature reviewed to discuss the problem that the study will address. Clearly outline the purpose of the research that is being proposed. The purpose must justify why there is a need for the proposed research study. End this section with the specific aims or objectives of the research study.
II. Research Question or Hypothesis or Research Query (RQ/Query)
Select the appropriate heading: Research Question, Hypothesis or Research Query. Remember to state the research question or query in the form of a question. Although this section is brief, it must be both precise and thorough. The reader should be clear on exactly what is being studied and in which population(s).
III. Background and Literature Review
In this section, summarize the key findings of the literature reviewed. Provide a critical analysis of the literature reviewed and include studies that both agree and disagree with your assumptions. Use your own words avoiding the use of direct quotes, and using correct APA in-text citations. Use your own words to describe how the literature leads to the gap in the literature that the proposed study will address. The section should inform the reader of other questions that have been asked and what measures or variables and/or relationships or experiences have already been explored by other researchers. The review should convey to the reader that the student has sufficient knowledge of the subject area planned to be study.
IV. Conceptual Framework or Theory
A. Conceptual Framework or Theory
In this subsection, identify a conceptual framework or theory that provides structure for your proposed study. Describe how this theory or framework applies to your population or phenomenon of interest. For a framework, clearly outline the relationship between your study concepts/variables, including intervening and confounding variables. Be sure to cite references. When citing an existing theory, cite the original source (i.e., do not cite your course reader or a textbook – you can identify the source with these as guides, but then go to an original article explaining the source).
B. Operational Definitions
In this subsection, describe and provide operational definitions for the main variables or phenomena that you will be studying. An operational definition is how you will be measuring a concept by relating it to a measurable variable in your study. For example, how you will define and measure the concepts “self-efficacy toward improving exercise habits”, “risk for CVD” or “presence and level of anxiety or depression”. You will also need to remember to connect the operational definitions to the instrument described in the instrumentation subsection.
V. Methodology
The sub sections below will help you to approach this process one step at a time. In each section, be certain to incorporate feedback from Assignment #4B.
A. Design
In this subsection, clearly identify the research design selected to answer the research question. If quantitative, specify the research design and approach that you will use to answer your research question (e. g., true experimental, quasi-experimental, correlational, descriiptive, etc.; cross-sectional, longitudinal, prospective, retrospective; others). If the study will use a qualitative design, specify the approach (e.g., ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory). Be sure to describe the specific details of your design (for example: If experimental, outline the number and nature of groups, independent and dependent variables, etc.). Please remember to be specific and precise in the language you use to describe the design and approach you selected. Your design must be able to answer your research question.
B. Sample/Sampling Strategy
In this subsection, explain how a sample will be generated for the research project. The sampling strategy should be appropriate given the design selected. Be specific about the category and type of sampling (e.g., probability using a simple random sample, non-probability using purposive, etc). If using a qualitative design, discuss the procedures for how the participants will be selected. Be specific about the type of “cases.” Describe what is known about the population of interest (e.g., socio-demographic characteristics). This section should also include inclusion and exclusion criteria, logistics of sampling and recruitment for the proposed study.
C. Setting
In this subsection, describe the potential or actual setting where the study will take place. For example: “Clinic waiting room at Hospital”, “Women’s shelter”, or “Internet site” (Links to an external site.)The location needs to be a feasible location for Californian student to have access to.
D. IRB Statement and Consent Procedures
Describe how and when participants’ informed consent will be obtained. Describe any potential risks and procedures for protecting against or minimizing any potential risks. If you are simply doing survey research the risk may be “no more than normally occurs in the course of everyday life”. Describe the benefits of the study for the intended population.
E. Data Collection Plan
In this subsection, outline and describe the process and procedures you will undertake to generate and/or gather/collect data to answer your research question/query. It should be clear to the reader what you will be doing, and what they would need to do to replicate your study.
Describe the type of data to be collected (e.g., for surveys, content areas [not the actual questions to be asked] and general types of data (e.g., quantitative, qualitative or both; for anthropometric, biological, and/or clinical data, specific measurement types). Describe variables’ levels of measurement (e.g., ordinal, interval, etc.). Specify the time period during which data will be collected, and explain the size/composition of groups that will be included in the study.
F. Instrumentation
Instruments are the tools that researchers use to measure variables during data collection. Note that in order to choose an appropriate instrument to measure your variable(s), you must operationalize your concepts/variables first (e.g., you must know what you are attempting to measure).
In this subsection, specify the type of instrument (e.g., questionnaire, survey; anthropomorphic, laboratory, clinical measurement tools) you will use to review, collect or generate data. Discuss whether or not quantitative instruments have been validated (or what will be done to ensure reliability and validity); if previously validated, describe in which populations and provide appropriate citation.
For survey and questionnaires, Discuss the general areas of assessment (e.g., demographics, attitudes about [your topic], knowledge of [your topic], and behaviors [associated with your topic]; specific measurements [related to your topic]). If you are using qualitative instruments, identify and explain which domains or areas of inquiry your instrument will cover/address (e.g., experiences with [your topic], feelings about [your topic], understanding of [your topic]. Also provide examples of the questions you will include for the interview guide, focus group, etc. Provide rationale for the questions you include.
Include a draft instrument in the Appendices.
G. Data Analysis Plan
In this subsection, explain the approach to data analysis. Based on the type of data collected and the way it was collected, address what will be done with the data. Refer to the text, lecture slides and notes and other resources to determine types of analysis and techniques for quantitative and qualitative data analysis.
Explain how descriiptive data will be organized and summarized. For quantitative proposals that include hypothesis testing, be sure to specify the method used to test the hypothesis (e.g. comparison of means between two or more groups). Demonstrate an understanding of which associations will be measured, if applicable (the relationship between variable X and variable Y). Finally, describe specifically how the planned analysis will answer the research question(s).
For qualitative designs, describe the process of reducing the data to common themes. Discuss coding, creating categories, taxonomies, and ultimately “telling the story” through the themes identified in the data.
H. Limitations of the Study
Study limitations are weaknesses within a research design that may impact or influence your study results and interpretations/conclusions. All studies have limitations. Identify and describe the limitations of your proposed study.
V. References
Minimum of 12 scholarly and timely references on a separate page formatted in correct APA 7th edition style.
A minimum of 12 references (8 primary references in literature review) from scholarly articles from the previous 8 years must be included. No more than 3 of these 12 references can be related to statistics (e.g., local population demographics) or general “fact sheets” or government reports. Additional references may be needed to cite a theory or validated instrument. Your reference list must be formatted in APA 7th edition. All in-text citations must be included on the reference page, and all references on the reference page must be cited in the text.
Format
Your assignment should be typed in Calibri 11, Arial 11, Lucida Sans Unicode 10, Times New Roman 12, and Georgia 11 point font, double spaced with one inch margins on all sides. Section titles and subtitles are to be formatted according to APA 7th edition. Word documents or PDF documents only.
Feasibility
Your proposed research must be feasible given a student’s reasonably available resources, The purpose for your research, your research question, and your methodology must be feasible. With respect to feasibility of your research methodology, your proposed design, including sampling method, setting, instrumentation, and data collection, and time line must be feasible for you, as a student. Use only what is necessary to address your research question. Intervention studies cannot exceed 6 months.
These are some articles that may help with the research:
-High Rates of Fat Oxidation Induced by a Low-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet, Do Not Impair 5-km Running Performance in Competitive Recreational Athletes
Can Endurance Athletes Perform Well with a Very Low Carbohydrate Diet? (Part I)
How Can Endurance Athletes Perform Well with a Very Low Carbohydrate Diet? (Part 2)
Case Study: Long-Term Low-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet Impairs Performance and Subjective Well-Being in a World-Class Vegetarian Long-Distance Triathlete
https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0124
Metabolic adaptations to endurance training and nutrition strategies influencing performance https://doi.org/10.1080/15438627.2018.1544134
Metabolic characteristics of keto-adapted ultra-endurance runners
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2015.10.028
Rethinking fat as a fuel for endurance exercise
https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2014.959564
Carbohydrate availability and exercise training adaptation: Too much of a good thing?
https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2014.920926
The Effect of a Ketogenic Low-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet on Aerobic Capacity and Exercise Performance in Endurance Athletes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082896
Effects of a 4-Week Very Low-Carbohydrate Diet on High-Intensity Interval Training Responses
Crisis of confidence averted: Impairment of exercise economy and performance in elite race walkers by ketogenic low carbohydrate, high fat (LCHF) diet is reproducible

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