I‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍ am attaching a previously written paper that need expandin

I‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍ am attaching a previously written paper that need expanding by 3 more pages. The attached paper also have some feedback the instructor provided. Thank you! The essay must reflect your original thinking and must also include at least seven valid‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍ sources. Valid sources are journal articles, book chapters, books, and interviews. Book reviews, encyclopedia entries (including Gale Group and Facts on File), and short entries are not acceptable sources. You must also include a primary source.‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍*

G‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍uidelines for History and Politics papers: • Write a histor

G‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍uidelines for History and Politics papers: • Write a historiographical essay of 5-7 pages (in 12-point font, Times or Times New Roman) using the assigned readings. When preparing your historiographical essay, make sure to select a topic that allows you to draw connections and comparisons across the texts. Whatever topic you choose, make sure to venture an original argument and place your texts in their appropriate historiographical context(s). Examples of historiographical essays may be found in the Journal of African American History, American Historical Review and other academic journals • Present each book’s argument, underlying assumptions, and analytical methods • Consider the sources and evidence each author employs • Be sure to critique the texts. However, you should critique them within the confines of the authors’ stated purpose(s). • Discuss who are these scholars in discussion, where do they agree and disagree with existing scholarship, and how do they use their works to construct and defend their own argument • When you find that scholars are not openly in discussion with one another, place them in discussion with ‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍one another. Ask yourself what is gained or lost in reading books x, y, and z together? • Interrogate the importance of the books to your particular argument and the field more broadly. In other words, what does the book(s) contribute to our historical understanding of a specific subject, era, moment, etc.? Stevhen Hahn, A Nation Under Our Feet- African American political development, mobilization and growth pre and post-Civil War, popular forms of Black nationalism Thavolia Glymph, Out of the House of Bondage- discusses how the plantation house was a political space, where enslaved women and white women battled over the meanings of labor and autonomy during the era of legal slavery and then over the definitions of freedom and citizenship after the Civil War. Private sphere having its own measure of violence and politics to navigate with slave mistresses executing violence and power against enslaved women. Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, Righteous Discontent- first full account of the crucial role of black women in making the church a powerful institution for social and political change in the black community. Between 1880 and 1920, the black c‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍hurch served as the

W‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍rite a paper in which you identify who your chosen author i

W‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍rite a paper in which you identify who your chosen author is (give brief bio/background info) and overview of how/why he ended up in the predicament he finds himself in at the beginning of his text. Then, identify three goals he had as a result of that predicament (The overview/context and three goals, along with brief mention of ‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍the people, experiences, or situations that affected these goals, should be in the intro). For each goal (one body paragraph per goal), discuss and analyze how/why specific people, experiences or situations affected that goal and kept the author motivated and focused on attaining it. End your paper (conclusion) with a reflectio‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍n

H‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍ere are the instructions and the topic thesis and cited sou

H‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍ere are the instructions and the topic thesis and cited sources to use: Research Prospectus (9-13 pages): The final writing assignment will grow out of students’ reading for the class; understanding of motifs, issues, and concepts that emerge during class discussion; and original scholarly research. It will cohere around a broad argument outlined in its 1-page introduction and consist of 4 brief essays, each 2-3 pages in length, that analyze the text’s content, formal aesthetics, and theoretical underpinnings as well as mine the historical, social, and political milieu shaping the text. Each of the essays in the research prospectus will articulate a separate, although related, argument, and each essay will support and contextualize its analysis with at least 1 scholarly secondary, peer-reviewed source from the annotated bibliography. In this way, the research prospectus is a deconstructed essay with several parts that make the whole. You will write on the novel “Citizen by Claudia Rankine Here is the thesis guideline you will use as research. This should be your first page: Am I A Citizen? What does it mean to be a citizen? Poet Claudia Rankine explores this question with a compilation of short stories that reach back and reshape the concept of citizenship of African Americans in the twenty first century. In this essay we will analyze and discuss concepts that surround Rankine’s work and this question. Whie reviewing her works and studying other viable sources we will contrast the writer’s positions on these concepts. Rethinking society’s ideology of Human Rights, Social Status, and Community we will take those threads and link them to the overarching theme of citizenship, invisibility and its impact on our country. Society defines citizenship as a legally recognized subject or national state or commonwealth, either native or naturalized. The concept of citizenship dates to ancient Greece and was made with the intent to distinguish men that owned property. This privilege did not apply to women, slaves, or the impoverished. The same could be said for today. Slavery was abolished in 1865 but as the author notes discrimination and injustice is very much alive and active in the United States. These struggles show up in police encounters, corporate racism, sports, politics, and day to day life. Although persons of color make up two thirds of the country’s demographic, it also inhabits the most impoverished and undereducated population. Daily African Americans and other minorities are criminalized through the through the media. Uncovering truths through Rankine’s work we examine texts which challenge the readers notions theories of black freedom struggles the BLM movment and its circumstances as well as the definition of poetry and the art of storytelling. Here are the sources you must use in addition to Rankine’s novel Citizen. Annotated Bibliography Schlosser, Joel Alden. “A Poetics of American Citizenship: Blackness, Injury, and Claudia Rankine’s Citizen – Joel Alden Schlosser, 2020.” SAGE Journals Vol 16, Oct. 2020, In this article Schlosser takes a strong position of standing as a metaphor for citizenship. Standing is stating status with public acknowledgement. Standing means that a person is a law abiding and upstanding citizen and with public backing. Minorities lack such backing most times or suffer hardships in proving it. With slavery as an undertone for the foundation of society, the writer suggests that African Americans will never have this claim to stand. Instead, the blackness of our peers will overshadow much. Schlosser quoting other writers like Judith Skylar. Her fundamental vision of citizenship, naming Un inclusion and invisibility amongst other things at its core. On the opposing side he contrasts this concept with injury, arguing that there are only sides to choose from. Johnson, Jessica. “Autoethnography as a Poetics of Worlding and a Politics of Becoming: Claudia Rankine’s Citizen and Kathleen Stewart’s Ordinary Affects – Jessica Johnson, 2020.” SAGE Journals, Cultural Studies, Critical Methodologies, 2020-04, (2), , Apr. 2020, In this article Katherine Stewarts Ordinary Affects compare Claudia Rankine’s Citizen. Using Autoethnography in Stewarts writing to create suspense and intensity surrounding daily social situations that arise within the community. Both authors mix writing styles by using “you”, and she and I in other instances, that keep the reader engaged. Stewarts analyzes politics and they’re place as well as broadens our thoughts on pop culture it’s impact on community and increase of importance. Still both authors stress the importance of individualistic experiences and the place they hold in shaping a culture. Microaggressions in the workplace are very real and expounded on in both works. Critic Silverman is sure to point this out as well as other black freedom struggles. Jones, Shermaine M. “‘I Can’t Breathe!”: Affective Asphyxia in Claudia Rankine’s Citizen: An American Lyric: Semantic Scholar.” Undefined, South (Chapel Hill, .), 2017-10-01, (1), , 1 Jan. 1970, This essay by Shermaine Jones is a continuation of Rankine’s Citizen. More horror stories of verbal and nonverbal racism. More sto‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍ries of death and destruction. And yet more microaggressions and equality issues. But still we must never forget the young man named Eric Garner and whose unjust circumstances would result in the fight for his life, which would eventually be taken by police, and we are left with his last words. It is in this article we will gain information and perspective on the topic of Human Rights. Jones will question the validity of these rights what means they are executed, and other surrounding factors related to the commonwealth of the struggle. Djawoto, Olivia. “Poetry in the Post Truth Era: Formal Structures in Claudia Rankine’s Citizen: An American Lyric.” 1Library, Forum (Edinburgh), 2017, (25), A poetic confrontation of racism, privilege, and non-fiction Djawoto takes a strong stance on her feelings for Rankine’s work. She is sure to point on America’s claim of equality and freedom and the “post racial” era it claims. The writer insists that Rankine exposes these fake truths and turns them on their heads. She goes further to challenge by self-reflection other race relational examples and compares them to Rankine’s epithets of societal standards and norms. Through potetic analysis Olivia supports the work of Claudia Rankine and gives supporting arguments to aid in her position of citizenship and the circumstances that define it. Annotated Bibliography Schlosser, Joel Alden. “A Poetics of American Citizenship: Blackness, Injury, and Claudia Rankine’s Citizen – Joel Alden Schlosser, 2020.” SAGE Journals Vol 16, Oct. 2020, In this article Schlosser takes a strong position of standing as a metaphor for citizenship. Standing is stating status with public acknowledgement. Standing means that a person is a law abiding and upstanding citizen and with public backing. Minorities lack such backing most times or suffer hardships in proving it. With slavery as an undertone for the foundation of society, the writer suggests that African Americans will never have this claim to stand. Instead, the blackness of our peers will overshadow much. Schlosser quoting other writers like Judith Skylar. Her fundamental vision of citizenship, naming Un inclusion and invisibility amongst other things at its core. On the opposing side he contrasts this concept with injury, arguing that there are only sides to choose from. Johnson, Jessica. “Autoethnography as a Poetics of Worlding and a Politics of Becoming: Claudia Rankine’s Citizen and Kathleen Stewart’s Ordinary Affects – Jessica Johnson, 2020.” SAGE Journals, Cultural Studies, Critical Methodologies, 2020-04, (2), , Apr. 2020, In this article Katherine Stewarts Ordinary Affects compare Claudia Rankine’s Citizen. Using Autoethnography in Stewarts writing to create suspense and intensity surrounding daily social situations that arise within the community. Both authors mix writing styles by using “you”, and she and I in other instances, that keep the reader engaged. Stewarts analyzes politics and they’re place as well as broadens our thoughts on pop culture it’s impact on community and increase of importance. Still both authors stress the importance of individualistic experiences and the place they hold in shaping a culture. Microaggressions in the workplace are very real and expounded on in both works. Critic Silverman is sure to point this out as well as other black freedom struggles. Jones, Shermaine M. “‘I Can’t Breathe!”: Affective Asphyxia in Claudia Rankine’s Citizen: An American Lyric: Semantic Scholar.” Undefined, South (Chapel Hill, .), 2017-10-01, (1), , 1 Jan. 1970, This essay by Shermaine Jones is a continuation of Rankine’s Citizen. More horror stories of verbal and nonverbal racism. More stories of death and destruction. And yet more microaggressions and equality issues. But still we must never forget the young man named Eric Garner and whose unjust circumstances would result in the fight for his life, which would eventually be taken by police, and we are left with his last words. It is in this article we will gain information and perspective on the topic of Human Rights. Jones will question the validity of these rights what means they are executed, and other surrounding factors related to the commonwealth of the struggle. Djawoto, Olivia. “Poetry in the Post Truth Era: Formal Structures in Claudia Rankine’s Citizen: An American Lyric.” 1Library, Forum (Edinburgh), 2017, (25), A poetic confrontation of racism, privilege, and non-fiction Djawoto takes a strong stance on her feelings for Rankine’s work. She is sure to point on America’s claim of equality and freedom and the “post racial” era it claims. The writer insists that Rankine exposes these fake truths and turns them on their heads. She goes further to challenge by self-reflection other race relational examples and compares them to Rankine’s epithets of societal standards and norms. Through potetic analysis Olivia supports the work of Claudia Rankine and gives s‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍upporting arguments to aid in her position of citizenship and the circumstances that define it.

R‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍espond to the three attached peer reviews. These are called

R‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍espond to the three attached peer reviews. These are called your PEER RESPONSES which should be 300-500 words in length or equal to about a third of a page of double-spaced writing 12-point font. The assignment was a discussion post about the Civil Rights ‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍Movement entered a new era after the early 1970s as did the nation as a whole. How has the struggle for African Americans to achieve equality and freedom continued since the 1970s? What forms of resistance to the gains of civil rights movement have emerged‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍?

(‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍Use black people when referring to African Americans) Write

(‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍Use black people when referring to African Americans) Write a blog post that appraises Barack Obama’s legacy as America’s first black president. Although you are free to choose your own specific focus, some things to consider include: to what extent Obama emerges from the tradition of ‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍African-American leadership and strategy; to what extent Obama supersedes (or sought to supersede) those legacies exclusively; how Obama’s presidency or leadership rhetoric might be interpreted in light of citizens’ expectations of black leadership, of presidents, and of race-based repres‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍entation.