Read the von Sonderen, Sanderman, and Coyne (2013) article.  Discuss the followi

Read the von Sonderen, Sanderman, and Coyne (2013) article.  Discuss the following issues related to reverse-scored items.
What is the primary reason that some items are reverse scored in questionnaires or surveys?
What are some possible disadvantages of reverse scoring items?
If the instruments you have selected for your evaluation have reverse-scored items, why is it critical to calculate those variables before analyzing the data? 
References
van Sonderen, E., Sanderman, R., & Coyne, J.C. (2013).  Ineffectiveness of reverse wording of questionnaire items: Let’s learn from cows in the rain.  PLOS One, 8(7), e68967.

Discussion – Psychology of Abnormal Behavior  Please share your thoughts on the

Discussion – Psychology of Abnormal Behavior 
Please share your thoughts on the depression video? What are some takeaways you find interesting? Who do you find most interesting and why? 

Course Materials 
Kearney. C & Trull. T, Abnormal Psychology and Life: A Dimensional Approach, 3rd edition.  
Cengage, 2018 -ISBN: 9781337273572( Mind Tap)
At least 275 words. 

Counselor Definition In a few sentences, describe what led you to graduate educa

Counselor Definition
In a few sentences, describe what led you to graduate education in the counseling profession and your career goals.
Life Skills
Many life experiences and skills developed in your past will serve you as a professional counselor. Consider skills (do not include technology skills) you have obtained from current or past employment, community volunteer services, or extracurricular activity experiences. Summarize two or three skills that will make you a competent professional counselor.
Feedback
Training to become a professional counselor requires deliberate growth and development including receiving and applying constructive feedback. As a student, you will receive ongoing and substantial constructive feedback regarding your scholarly performance (i.e., knowledge, skills, and professional behaviors). Share how you have processed, responded to, and applied past constructive feedback that was difficult to hear.
Multiculturalism/Diversity
Multicultural/Diversity competence is explored extensively in the School of Counseling graduate programs. Considering that having a cultural or implicit bias is a normal experience for all individuals, identify a closely held value or belief that will be the most difficult for you to respect while interacting with others and explain why.
Self-Care
Identify three to five activities that you do to manage personal mental health, emotional problems, stress, and/or interpersonal relationships effectively.

I chose to conduct research into the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder

I chose to conduct research into the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). I chose this topic because my best friend’s fiancé struggles with it. The severity of his impairment is not only affecting his quality of life, but her quality of life as well. She has told me numerous times that she will not have kids until he seeks treatment, but he is resisting therapy for fear of exposure to his triggers. By educating myself, I may be able to help her support him. 
Manarte et al., (2021) conducted a study on how insight in OCD is associated with empathetic concern and emotion recognition. They conducted a clinical interview on 57 OCD patients and administered the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive scale to determine the severity of their symptoms. This was then cross-examined with their scores on emotional awareness and insight. They discovered that patients with OCD are more likely to experience discomfort when confronted with the emotions of others, they were more likely to adopt negative thought patterns, and less likely to identify negative emotions within themselves (Manarte et al., 2021).  Manarte et al. (2021) concludes that individuals with OCD and poor insight “have lower emphatic concern and biased emotion recognition, particularly regarding negative emotions.” The information that can be gained from examining the relationship between insight and OCD will allow for better treatment outcomes. As of right now, treatment is ineffective in 33 percent of all OCD cases (Manarte et al., 2021). By expanding the scope of comprehending OCD, it may be possible to target other cognitive functions during treatment. 
Reference
Manarte, L., Andrade, A. R., do Rosário, L., Sampaio, D., Figueira, M. L., Langley, C., Morgado, P., & Sahakian, B. J. (2021). Poor insight in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD): Associations with empathic concern and emotion recognition. Psychiatry Research, 304, 114129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2021.114129 

Reinforcements  According to Miltenberger, reinforcement is classified as either

Reinforcements 
According to Miltenberger, reinforcement is classified as either positive or negative (Miltenberger & University of South Florida, 2022). Reinforcement of both types works by adding a stimulus or taking one away to encourage that behavior. However, reinforcement differs from punishment as the goal is to strengthen behavior and not weaken or discourage one (Miltenberger & University of South Florida, 2022).
Positive Reinforcement
Positive reinforcement is a method used to encourage or discourage a particular behavior. For example, with a dog, a trainer may give a piece of chicken to reinforce the trick of rolling over. The dog knew that the trainer would give him a treat in this scenario if he rolled over. The chicken motivates the dog to do the behavior the trainer desired.
Negative Reinforcement
Negative reinforcement is also a method to encourage a behavior, but instead of receiving a “treat,” an aversive stimulus is removed (Miltenberger & University of South Florida, 2022). For instance, a house’s fire alarm has a siren that goes off every 30 seconds because you did not change the battery on time. Once you replace the battery, the ear-piercing siren ceases; this silence reinforces the behavior of setting a reminder so that every 90 days, they remember to change the batteries, so they do not have a siren waking them up.
Reinforcement in the Bible
Throughout the two books of Samuel, the Davidic covenant is explained, revealing the terms and the promises that come with it (Crossway, 2001). The Davidic covenant is an example of (primarily) positive reinforcement. God desired David to follow the terms of the Mosaic covenant, which can be read in 1 Kings 9:1-9 and 2 Samuel 23:2-7 (Crossway, 2001). If David followed the terms of the Mosaic covenant, then he was promised a kingdom that would be everlasting (2 Sam 7:13, Crossway, 2001). God reinforced the behaviors by promising “a treat.”
Reference
Crossway. (2001). English Standard – ESV Classic Reference Bible. Crossway Bibles.
Miltenberger, R. G. & University of South Florida. (2022). Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures by Raymond G. Miltenberger (2015–01-01) (6th ed.) [E-book]. Wadsworth Publishing. https://ebooks.cenreader.com/#!/reader/016eeeda-4726-4f3d-9d2f-72f15b262a33/page/758a39896cdf87baf7a6aadddffd418f?search=establishing%20operation

Discussion and Conclusion Final Project: Discussion and Conclusion topic: Social

Discussion and Conclusion
Final Project: Discussion and Conclusion
topic: Social Psychology of Self-efficacy
This week, you will create the Discussion and Conclusion section of your research proposal. topic  In a proposal such as this you will also need to include your expected results. The expected results are based on several factors including what you learned from your literature review (literature review has been attached )on similar research and what you learned from your course readings thus far. 
The difference between a great r esearch p aper and a marginal one is the depth and originality of the discussion and conclusions section. The discussion/conclusion section is where you bring together what you learned from the literature review (as well as through the course) in your concluding remarks regarding your topic.
Provide an overview of the expected results
Develop a conclusion of your r esearch proposal
Include information on the ramifications of the study, its limitations, and the potential for future research studies

Debates on Stress Coping Lazarus’s cognitive approach suggests that the way you

Debates on Stress Coping
Lazarus’s cognitive approach suggests that the way you cope with stress is based on your mental process of how you interpret and appraise a stressful situation in which the level of appraisal determines the level of stress and the unique coping strategies used (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). According to Lazarus, there are specific events or stressors that influence an individual’s cognitions of an event, known as appraisals, and your coping strategies refer to your cognitive and behavioral efforts to master the stressful event (Franken, 2007). The primary appraisal assesses whether the situation is threatening, and the secondary appraisal assesses how we should cope with the stress (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984).
Another most debated gender stress–coping study has been the topic of orientation regarding gender and stress. Stress theory is often used to explain the relationship between social disadvantage and health (Scheid & Horwitz, 1999). Stress theory provides a useful approach to understand the relationship between pervasive prejudice and discrimination and health outcomes, but the predictions based on the theory need to be carefully investigated (Aneshensel & Pearlin, 1987).
Another debate on stress coping focuses on role overload. Balancing both work and family often causes a role overload (Barnette & Gareis, 2008). Others see role stress as significant because it explains why women experience more stressful events and strain than men. Poverty also presents a risk for mental disorders for women; statistics show that those who live in poverty are at least two and a half times more likely to receive a mental health diagnosis than those who are not poor (Mossakowski, 2008).
Even if women as a group are not exposed to more stress than men, it is plausible that some subgroups of women—poor women, black women, and single mothers—are disadvantaged in significant ways (Acker, 2000).
In a 2- to 3-page analysis p aper in a Microsoft Word document, address the following:
Do women and men have different coping styles for stress? Evidence with regard to stress and gender has been mixed for decades. Compare the coping styles for stress of both men and women. Support your reasoning with research.
Some argue that female gender groups are more stressed than lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) persons as a group. Some are of the opinion that lesbian and bisexual women are exposed to greater stress than heterosexual women because of added disadvantaged sexual minority status and that lesbian and bisexual women are exposed to greater stress than gay and bisexual men because of their added disadvantaged gender status. On the basis of your readings, experiences, and research, what are your findings?
Submission Details:
Cite all sources using APA format on a separate page
References:
Acker, J. (2000). Rewriting class, race, and gender: Problems in feminist rethinking.
In M. M. Ferre, J. Lorber, & B. B. Hess (Eds.), Revisiting gender (pp. 3–43).
Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press.
Aneshensel, C. S., & Pearlin, L. I. (1987). The structural contexts of sex differences
in stress. In R. C. Barnett, L. Biener L, & G. K. Baruck (Eds.), Gender and
stress (pp. 75–95). New York, NY: Free Press.
Barnett, R. C., & Gareis, K. C. (2008). Community: The critical missing link in
work-family research. In A. Marcus-Newhall, D. F. Halpern, & S. J. Tan
(Eds.), Changing realities of work and family: A multidisciplinary approach
(pp. 71–84). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Franken, R. E. (2007). Human motivation (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson.
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York, NY:
Springer.
Mossakowski, K. (2008). Dissecting the influence of race, ethnicity, and
socioeconomic status on mental health in young adulthood. Research on
Aging, 30(6), 649–671.
Scheid, T. L., & Horwitz, A. V. (1999). The social context of mental health and
illness. In A. F. Horwitz & T. L. Scheid (Eds.), A handbook for the study
of mental health: Social contexts, theories, and systems (pp. 151–160).
Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

For this assignment, you will identify the main concepts and terms learned in th

For this assignment, you will identify the main concepts and terms learned in this week’s online lectures and textbook readings and create a fictional case study (may not be related to actual individuals).
You will use the following guidelines while writing your case study:
Background: You need to describe the demographics of individuals involved in the case study such as their age, gender, occupation, education, relationships, and family history.
The case story: You need to describe a scenario demonstrating a group of individuals engaged in physical and verbal aggression.
Analysis of the case: You need to utilize the information learned from the online lectures and text readings to analyze the case study. Be specific in your analysis using supporting evidence from outside sources when needed.
Recommendations: You need to end the case study with your recommendations or suggestions you would have implemented in such a situation to assist in changing the behavior of the individuals involved in the case study.
Support your responses with examples.
Reference any sources you use using the APA format on a separate page.

It could be said that we all are born aggressive but as we mature to adulthood w

It could be said that we all are born aggressive but as we mature to adulthood we become less aggressive, transferring our aggressive tendencies to more acceptable behaviors such as sports and competition. One of the ways in which theorist have describe this process learning is social learning theory. Alfred Bandura’s classic Bobo doll experiment provided research evidence that aggression, like other behaviors can be learned as well. One of the challenges is how to define aggression. Anger is an abstract concept that is hard to define unless you attribute it to some overt observable behavior.
If you have ever worked in a preschool or child day care, you may have observed volatile behaviors in some of the children such as hitting others, biting, slapping, yelling, and throwing objects at others. Would this observation support the premise that we are born aggressive and we learn not to be?
Describe the theoretical basis of the Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment. Based on the results of the experiment, explain your conclusions regarding aggressive behavior.
Describe what is meant by the term “aggression”? What factors in an individual need to be considered when defining aggression? How can aggression be categorized?
Justify your answers with appropriate reasoning and research from your text and course readings. Comment on the postings of at least two peers and provide an analysis of each peer’s postings while also suggesting specific additions or clarifications for improving the discussion question response.
To support your work, make sure to utilize your course and text readings. When asked, utilize outside sources. As in all assignments make sure to cite your sources in your work and provide a reference for that citation utilizing APA format.